Prison reform becomes an issue worldwide. The central argument for prison reform is human rights. Imprisonment is related to deprivation of basic right of liberty, poverty, public health implications, and other detrimental social impact such as disrupting relationship and family structure.
In the United States, prisons started to expand in the early 1970s. Three decades later, the U.S. policy makers began to see the falling of crime rates but an increasing prison budget. Reformers believe that changes in prison system are on the horizon.
disenfranchisement / disfranchisement
deinstitutionalization of prisoners
alternatives to imprisonment
|Alternative Sentencing||Increasingly, alternative approaches to sentencing reflect an acknowledgement by the criminal justice system that crimes and offenders differ in severity and intent and may benefit from more nuanced approaches to punishment, whereas in other cases (e.g. mothers) prison may be deemed unreasonably harmful to connected others and thus should be avoided for such reasons. Opposition to alternative sentencing is variable but being ‘soft’ on crime and criminals is a populist criticism often targeted at those in favor of it.|
The additional civil state penalties, mandated by statute, that attach to criminal convictions. They are not part of the direct consequences of criminal conviction, such as prison, fines, or probation, but they are known to adversely affect adoptions, housing, welfare, immigration, employment, professional licensure, property rights, mobility, and other opportunities—the collective effect of which increases recidivism and undermines meaningful reentry of the convicted for a lifetime. (See Collateral Consequences)
|Correctional Education||a coordinated system of individualized learning services and activities conducted within the walls of a correctional facility.|
|Felony Disenfranchisement||the denial of the right to vote to incarcerated persons and released ex-offenders who were convicted of certain classified crimes, though not necessarily felonies. Since the adoption of the practice in colonial America, felony disenfranchisement has become a common practice within the United States. This practice has been particularly harmful to racial minorities, who have had the ability to exercise their political clout compromised.|
|Incarceration||the state of being confined in prison; imprisonment. Being locked up in a jail or prison for extended period can lead to the development of depression in many inmates.|
|Juvenile Delinquency||juvenile crime, it is something different than crime committed by adults. The concept led to creation of separate juvenile courts and correctional programs. Crimes committed by juveniles were thereafter construed as having different causes than adult crime.|
|Recidivism||the likelihood that a convicted criminal will reoffend. Also Prisoner Reentry.|
|Rehabilitation||involves changing an offender’s circumstances, attitudes or behaviors in order to prevent further offending.|
|Sentencing Policy||the government’s expressed position on what should happen to convicted offenders.|
|Supermax Prisons||short for super-maximum security prisons, or secure housing units (SHUs), are best understood as the highest-security accommodation in American state and federal prison systems. Since supermax facilities offer such scope for abuse and may be assumed to produce profound effects, they have attracted the attention of both campaigners and the courts. (See Supermax Prisons)|
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