|Author.||"Source Title."||Website (Container) Name,||Publisher,||date,||url.|
Author1, FirstName1, and FirstName2 Author2.
Author, FirstName, et al.
|"Title of Article."||Website Name,||Publisher Name,||
DD Mon. YYYY,
It's fairly common for websites to not have specifically named authors for any given page, but double-check that there's really not one given. Sometimes they're listed at the bottom instead of the top; sometimes a page produced by a lone person and you'll find their name on an About page instead.
You can choose to list the organization/corporation as the author instead and skip using them as the site name or publisher later in the citation. Skipping author so that the citation starts with the article title can make it easier to have unique in-text citations, though.
Not to be confused with the name of the overall site -- and this is something citation tools online get wrong a lot! Look at the page itself: what text appears closest to the article itself?
They can only scrape metadata off the website, and that data isn't structured with citations in mind. Rather, it expects people to save bookmarks or send links somewhere. Warning signs to watch for:
Look for what's actually written on the page itself (probably in the upper left corner) rather than in the address bar for the website's name. Every website has to be Something.com or Whatever.org or RandomExamples.net; that doesn't mean the website organizers consider the domain ending (.com, .net, etc) to be part of the website's official name.
Ex, For this Census Bureau article, the website is United States Census Bureau, not Census.gov.
By contrast, Space.com is actually Space.com, as we can see by the inclusion of ".com" on the site logo:
To get an idea of who the publisher is, look towards the very bottom of the page for the copyright notice or for an About page. For example, the publisher of Space.com is Future US.
If the name of the website is the same of the publisher, as is the case with the New York Times, just skip the publisher to avoid redundancy in the citation.
You can also exclude any business labels in the publisher name -- Inc, Ltd, LLC, and so on.
For sources that are likely to be edited and don't have an officially noted date, it is recommended that you add an access date after the URL. All dates in MLA are formatted as DD Mon. YYYY, e.g. Accessed 5 Nov. 2013.
The URL (the
http://www.etc... in the address bar of your browser) gives a particular location of a webpage.
Exclude the http:// when you include the address.
Avirgan, Jody. "Not All Privacy Policies Are Created Equal." FiveThirtyEight, 12 Feb. 2016, fivethirtyeight.com/features/not-all-privacy-policies-are-created-equal.
Irving, Ian and Kuan Xu. "Crime, Punishment and Poverty in the United States." IDEAS, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 25 Aug. 2009, ideas.repec.org/p/dal/wparch/uspov.html
If a nongovernmental organization is both the author of an article and the publisher, skip the author element and only list them as publisher.
"HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides." American Heart Association, 6 Nov. 2020, www.heart.org/en/health-topics/cholesterol/hdl-good-ldl-bad-cholesterol-and-triglycerides.
"Pluto: In Depth." Solar System Exploration, NASA, 19 Dec. 2019, solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/dwarf-planets/pluto/overview/.
UN Environment. Global Environment Outlook: GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People. Edited by Paul Ekins et al., 6th ed., Cambridge UP, 4 Mar. 2019, www.unep.org/resources/global-environment-outlook-6. PDF.
A blog post will basically be like a regular web article citation, though you might not have a person's real name to use.
Be very cautious if you're referencing a blog or comment in your paper. These aren't generally the best sources to use outside of very specific contexts.
Ruiz, Vanessa. "Wearing your anatomy on your skin: the anatomy tattoo gallery." Street Anatomy, 8 Aug. 2007, streetanatomy.com/blog/?p=132.
Bartok. "Latest Report on the Lack of Evidence for Swedish Gnomes." King Luan, 15 Sept. 2016, kingluan.com/royal-decrees/latest-report-on-the-lack-of-evidence-for-swedish-gnomes.
If you're referring to a comment on a blog post, include the timestamp in addition to the date:
Scooby Voodoo. Comment on "A bad case of the Mondays (in the INFINITE DARKNESS)." Comics Curmudgeon, 13 June 2016, 7:24 a.m., joshreads.com/?p=27615.
"Summer Reading Program." Welcome to Night Vale, written by Joseph Fink and Jeffrey Cranor, narrated by Cecil Baldwin, episode 28, Night Vale Presents, 1 Aug. 2013, welcometonightvale.com/listen.
Tomoo, Inagaki. Pumpkins. 1955. MOMA, www.moma.org/collection/works/60805.
Wyeth, Andrew. Self-Portrait. 1945, National Academy Museum & School, New York. Google Arts & Culture, www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/self-portrait/bQGXPeyDH80c0Q.
Include the full text of the tweet inside quotation marks in place of a title. The publication date should also include a time stamp.
@persiankiwi. "We have report of large street battles in east & west of Tehran now - #Iranelection." Twitter, 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m., twitter.com/persiankiwi/status/2298106072.
The citation will vary based on whether you're emphasizing the text of the post, the image, a video, a story, a highlight, or a profile.
If the username is similar to the person's real name, you don't need to include both -- just use the real name.
Ward, Alie. "This week’s Ologies is an encore of Ferroequinology (TRAINS)! So much trivia, history, mysteries, love and lore of the ol’ railroad plus futurecasting with bullet trains and Hyperloops. PS: I drove this locomotive and it was THRILLING." Instagram, 9 Mar. 2022, www.instagram.com/p/Ca6POgcuIxB/.
Tanaka, Tatsuya . "Sweets Go Round." Instagram, 19 Apr. 2022, www.instagram.com/p/CcgiXENqKsY/.
@ku.ma2088. Photo of a teddy bear peeling a sweet potato. Instagram, photo 1, 17 Apr. 2022, www.instagram.com/p/Cccin2GPe8C/.
@drglaucomflecken. Video skit on the nature of academic publishing. TikTok, 2022, www.tiktok.com/@drglaucomflecken/video/7065161158809931055.
@drglaucomflecken. "Explaining Medicine to Your Non-Medical Friends." Tiktok, 2022, www.tiktok.com/@drglaucomflecken/video/6961502487358491910.
Do not list entire websites in your Works Cited page.