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Citations: MLA Style (8th ed.)

A guide to writing and citing in MLA format.

In-Text Citations

Your in-text citation for audiovisual materials should refer to the timestamp of where your quoted information begins and takes the place of page numbers, or the range of times. Hours: Minutes: Seconds.

For example, (Smith 3:20), (Atwood 01:47:12-29).

Advertisement

This will vary depending on the medium the ad is being delivered. Ads typically aren't properly titled nor is an author made apparent, so your citation will start with a description as a stand-in for those elements.


Head and Shoulders advertisement. Newsweek, 17 Mar. 2008, p. 2.

Parenthetical citation: (Head and Shoulders).

Audiobooks

Digital Audiobook:

Martin, George R. R. A Feast for Crows. Narrated by Roy Dotrice, Random House Audio, 2011, www.audible.com/pd/Sci-Fi-Fantasy/A-Feast-for-Crows-Audiobook/B006LPIVL8/.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin 01:47:12-29).

Sanderson, Brandon. Oathbringer. Narrated by Kate Reading and Michael Kramer, Macmillan Audio, 2017, hcpl.overdrive.com/media/3284488.

Parenthetical citation: (Sanderson 10:16:08-34).

 

Audiobook on CD:

Martin, George R. R. A Feast for Crows. Narrated by Roy Dotrice, Random House Audio, 2011. CD.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin disc 2 01:47:12-29).

DVD Film or TV

Remember, movie and TV citations can vary based on what aspect of the work you're focusing on or if you're looking at in whole. If you include information that you had to look up from another source, write that information [inside brackets] in your citation.


Movies

Patton. Directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, 1970. 20th Century Fox, 2006, DVD.

Parenthetical citation: (Patton 00:14:15).

Scott, George C., performer. Patton. Directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, Twentieth Century Fox, 2006, DVD.

Parenthetical citation: (Scott).

Bacall, Lauren, performer. The Big Sleep. 1946. Warner Brothers, 2000, DVD.

Parenthetical citation: (Bacall).

 

TV Episode on DVD:

"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, episode 10, WB Television Network, 2003, disc 3.

Parenthetical citation: ("Hush" 00:14:15-28). ("Hush").

Images Online

Tomoo, Inagaki. Pumpkins. 1955. MOMA, www.moma.org/collection/works/60805.

Parenthetical citation: (Tomoo).

 

Wyeth, Andrew. Self-Portrait. 1945, National Academy Museum & School, New York. Google Arts & Culture, www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/self-portrait/bQGXPeyDH80c0Q.

Parenthetical citation: (Wyeth).

Image in a Book

Hopper, Edward. Nighthawks. 1942, Art Institute of Chicago. Prebles' Artforms, by Patrick Frank, 11th ed., Pearson, 2014.

Parenthetical citation: (Hopper).
If you were discussing more than one Hopper piece: (Hopper Nighthawks). (Hopper Automat).

 

Landacre, Paul. Illustration of paper birch trees. A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., p. 164.

Parenthetical citation: (Landacre).

Note: in the Landacre example, the art was produced for the book, rather than being reproduced in the book. The Landacre illustration is not titled in the book, so we write a description of the image instead. Because it's a description and not a formal title, we do not italicize it nor put "quotes" around it.

Online/Streaming Videos

Remember, movie and TV citations can vary based on what aspect of the work you're focusing on or if you're looking at in whole. If you include information that you had to look up from another source, write that information [inside brackets] in your citation.


YouTube:

"Gwen Stefani Carpool Karaoke (w/ George Clooney & Julia Roberts)." The Late Late Show with James Corden, 4 May 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2SXmzk8ve4.

Parenthetical citation: ("Gwen Stefani").

 

Streaming Movie:

Desk Set. [Twentieth Century Fox], 1957, www.netflix.com/title/60036835.

Parenthetical citation: (Desk Set).

 

Lang, Walter, director. Desk Set. [Twentieth Century Fox], 1957, www.netflix.com/title/60036835.

Parenthetical citation: (Lang).

 

Ice on Fire. Directed by Leila Conners, HBO Documentary Films, 2019. Kanopy, lonestar.kanopy.com/video/ice-fire.

Parenthetical citation: (Ice on Fire).

 

Streaming TV Episode:

"Ladies and Gentlemen." Master of None, season 1, episode 7, Netflix, 2015, www.netflix.com/watch/80065728.

Parenthetical citation: ("Ladies and Gentleman").

 

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu, www.hulu.com/watch/511318.

Parenthetical citation: ("Under the Gun").

Podcasts

Fink, Joseph and Jeffrey Cranor. "Summer Reading Program." Welcome to Night Vale, narrated by Cecil Baldwin, episode 28, Night Vale Presents, 1 Aug. 2013, welcometonightvale.com/listen.

Parenthetical citation: (Fink and Cranor). (Fink and Cranor 00:20:13).

Political Cartoon

Political, or editorial, cartoons will basically follow a citation for an image, with perhaps a second container depending on where you viewed it. They don't usually have their own titles: instead, you will write a generic description of it, capitalizing the first word and any proper nouns. You may also add a label at the very end of the citation to note the format of this citation.


Varvel, Gary. Cartoon obituary honoring Mohammad Ali as The Greatest. The Indianapolis Star, 2016. USA Today, www.usatoday.com/picture-gallery/opinion/cartoons/2012/11/28/editorial-cartoons-on-pop-culture/1733923.

Parenthetical citation: (Varvel).

Presentation, Speech, Lecture

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Four Freedoms speech." Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union. United States Capitol, Washington, D.C. 6 Jan. 1941. Address.

Parenthetical citation: (Roosevelt).

Note: if you're watching a recording of a speech/etc, follow the examples for how you viewed it (streaming video, DVD, audio recording, etc).

Music

Odom, Leslie, Jr. "Wait For It." Hamilton (Original Broadway Cast Recording), written by Lin-Manuel Miranda, Atlantic, 2015. CD.

Parenthetical citation: (Odom).

 

DeMarco, Randi. "Shaboom." Shaboom, 2015. Spotify, play.spotify.com/track/2YZkmKOj5cUFyDNiplIcjS.

Parenthetical citation: (DeMarco).

Television Shows & Episodes

Your citation will vary depending on what aspect of the work you're focusing on. If you're looking at the how the work was produced, you'll start with the writer or the director; if you're focusing on a performance, you'll start with the actor.


Entire Show as a Whole:

Pace, Lee, performer. Pushing Daisies. The Jinks/Cohen Company / Living Dead Guy Productions, 2007-2009.

Parenthetical citation: (Pace).

Fuller, Brian, creator. Pushing Daisies. The Jinks/Cohen Company / Living Dead Guy Productions, 2007-2009.

Parenthetical citation: (Fuller).

Pushing Daisies. Created by Brian Fuller, performance by Lee Pace, The Jinks/Cohen Company / Living Dead Guy Productions, 2007-2009.

Parenthetical citation: (Pushing Daisies).

 

An Individual Episode:

"Pie-lette." Pushing Daisies. Created by Brian Fuller, performance by Lee Pace, season 1, episode 1, The Jinks/Cohen Company/Living Dead Guy Productions, 2007.

Parenthetical citation: ("Pie-lette").

"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon,  episode 10, WB Television Network, 2003, disc 3.

Parenthetical citation: ("Hush").