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Citations: MLA Style (8th ed.)

A guide to writing and citing in MLA format.

Print Book

One Author:

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

Parenthetical citation: (Schlosser). (Schlosser 125).

 

Peattie, Donald Culross. A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America. 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin, 1950.

Parenthetical citation: (Peattie). (Peattie 125).

Two Authors:

Brown, Nathan, and Sheryle A. Proper. The Everything Paying for College Book. Adams, 2005.

Parenthetical citation: (Brown and Proper). (Brown and Proper 81).

Three or More Authors:

Bassis, Michael S., et al. Sociology: An Introduction. 4th ed., McGraw, 1991.

Parenthetical citation: (Bassis et al.). (Bassis et al 125).

E-Books

Library Database

Glen Whitman, and James Dow. Economics of the Undead : Zombies, Vampires, and the Dismal Science. Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. EBSCO eBook Collection, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,cpid&custid=s1088435&db=nlebk&AN=815518&site=ehost-live.

Parenthetical citation: (Whitman and Dow). (Whitman and Dow 76).

Online

Stoker, Bram. Dracula. E-book, Grosset & Dunlap, 1897. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/files/345/345-h/345-h.htm.

Parenthetical citation: (Stoker). (Stoker ch. 4).

Kindle Book

Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage.  Kindle ed., Farrar, 2010.

Parenthetical citation: (Rowley). (Rowley ch. 4).
Note: some Kindle editions do offer "real page numbers," in which case you could cite like normal, e.g. (Rowley 176).

Article Reprinted in a Book/Anthology

Arnold, H. F. "The Night Wire." Masterpieces of Terror and the Supernatural, edited by Marvin Kaye, Barnes & Noble ed., Barnes & Noble Books, 1993, pp. 328-334.

Parenthetical citation: (Arnold). (Arnold 330).

 

Chan, Janet. "Changing Police Culture." Policing: Key Readings, edited by Tim Newburn, Willian, 2005, pp. 338-63.

Parenthetical citation: (Chan). (Chan 340).

Audiobooks

Digital Audiobook:

Martin, George R. R. A Feast for Crows. Narrated by Roy Dotrice, Random House Audio, 2011, www.audible.com/pd/Sci-Fi-Fantasy/A-Feast-for-Crows-Audiobook/B006LPIVL8/.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin 01:47:12-29).

Sanderson, Brandon. Oathbringer. Narrated by Kate Reading and Michael Kramer, Macmillan Audio, 2017, hcpl.overdrive.com/media/3284488.

Parenthetical citation: (Sanderson 10:16:08-34).

 

Audiobook on CD:

Martin, George R. R. A Feast for Crows. Narrated by Roy Dotrice, Random House Audio, 2011. CD.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin disc 2 01:47:12-29).

Image in a Book

Hopper, Edward. Nighthawks. 1942, Art Institute of Chicago. Prebles' Artforms, by Patrick Frank, 11th ed., Pearson, 2014.

Parenthetical citation: (Hopper).
If you were discussing more than one Hopper piece: (Hopper Nighthawks). (Hopper Automat).

 

Landacre, Paul. Illustration of paper birch trees. A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., p. 164.

Parenthetical citation: (Landacre).

Note: in the Landacre example, the art was produced for the book, rather than being reproduced in the book. The Landacre illustration is not titled in the book, so we write a description of the image instead. Because it's a description and not a formal title, we do not italicize it nor put "quotes" around it.

Introduction to a Book

This example also applies to prefaces, forewords, afterwords, and other appendices not part of the main text.


Kaye, Marvin. Introduction. Masterpieces of Terror and the Supernatural, edited by Marvin Kaye, Barnes & Noble ed., Barnes & Noble Books, 1993, pp. xiii-xv.

Parenthetical citation: (Kaye). (Kaye xiv).

Notes: Introduction is more of a label than a proper title, so it does not receive quotes. The page numbers at the end (xiii-xv) give the range of pages the introduction is found on; it is typical for introductions to have Roman numerals for their pages.

The "Barnes & Noble ed." could be excluded in light of B&N also being the publisher, but the copyright information page did provide enough detail about the arrangement that in this case, the redundancy seemed appropriate.


Pine, Frank Woodworth. Introduction. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, e-book, Holt & Co., 1916, www.gutenberg.org/files/20203/20203-h/20203-h.htm.

Parenthetical citation: (Pine).

Theses & Dissertations

Because these documents are standalone and lengthy, their citation actually mimics a book (or an e-book, to be more precise, because you'll also be including information about the website or repository hosting the manuscript as a second container).


Dusza, Erin M. Epic Significance: Placing Alphonse Mucha's Czech Art in the Context of Pan-Slavism and Czech Nationalism. 2012. Georgia State University, Master's thesis. ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University, scholarworks.gsu.edu/art_design_theses/103/.

Parenthetical citation: (Dusza). (Dusza 34).