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Citations: MLA Style (9th ed.)

A guide to writing and citing in MLA format.


This will vary depending on the medium the ad is being delivered. Ads typically aren't properly titled nor is an author made apparent, so your citation will start with a description as a stand-in for those elements.


Advertisement for Head and Shoulders. Newsweek, 17 Mar. 2008, p. 2.

Parenthetical citation: (Advertisement).
Narrative citation will probably work better in this case, though, e.g. The advertisement for Head and Shoulders printed in Newsweek made use of...

Digital Ad

"Get the Best of The New Yorker." The New Yorker, 10 Jan. 2017, Pop-up advertisement.

Parenthetical citation: ("Get the Best").


Digital Audiobook:

Martin, George R. R. A Feast for Crows. Narrated by Roy Dotrice, audiobook ed., Random House Audio, 2011.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin 01:47:12-29).

Sanderson, Brandon. Oathbringer. Narrated by Kate Reading and Michael Kramer, audiobook ed., Macmillan Audio, 2017.

Parenthetical citation: (Sanderson 10:16:08-34).


Audiobook on CD:

Martin, George R. R. A Feast for Crows. Narrated by Roy Dotrice, audiobook ed., Random House Audio, 2011. CD.

Parenthetical citation: (Martin disc 2 01:47:12-29).

Illustrations, Comics

Political Cartoon:

Political, or editorial, cartoons will basically follow a citation for an image, with perhaps a second container depending on where you viewed it. They don't usually have their own titles: instead, you will write a generic description of it, capitalizing the first word and any proper nouns. You may also add a label at the very end of the citation to note the format of this citation.

Varvel, Gary. Cartoon obituary honoring Mohammad Ali as The Greatest. The Indianapolis Star, 2016. USA Today,

Parenthetical citation: (Varvel).

Illustration Original to a Book:

In this example, the art was produced for the book, rather than being reproduced in the book. The Landacre illustration is not titled in the book, so we write a description of the image instead. Because it's a description and not a formal title, we do not italicize it nor put "quotes" around it.

Landacre, Paul. Illustration of paper birch trees. A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin, p. 164.

Parenthetical citation: (Landacre).

Online Cartoon:

Beaton, Kate. "Dude Watchin' With the Brontes." Hark! A Vagrant, Accessed 28 July 2021.

Parenthetical citation: (Beaton).

Weinersmith, Zach. Cartoon. Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal, 21 Oct. 2012,

Parenthetical citation: (Weinersmith).


Desk Set. Directed by Walter Land, 20th Century Fox, 1957. Netflix app.

Parenthetical citation: (Desk Set).


Sanctuary. Directed by Tony Richardson, Twentieth Century Fox, 1961. YouTube, uploaded by LostCinemaChannel, 17 July 2014,

Parenthetical citation: (Sanctuary).


Re-released Movie:

Movie with original release date included along with current release date

Patton. 1970. Directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, 20th Century Fox, 2006.

Parenthetical citation: (Patton 00:14:15).

Black Panther: Wakanda Forever. Directed by Ryan Coogler, Marvel Studios / Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 2022.

Parenthetical citation: (Black Panther).

If you're focusing on the contributions of a specific contributor, as opposed to the movie as a whole, place them in the Author slot:

Lang, Walter, director. Desk Set. Twentieth Century Fox, 1957. Netflix app.

Parenthetical citation: (Lang).


Richardson, Tony, director. Sanctuary. Screenplay by James Poe, Twentieth Century Fox, 1961. YouTube, uploaded by LostCinemaChannel, 17 July 2014,

Parenthetical citation: (Richardson).


Scott, George C., performer. Patton. Directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, Twentieth Century Fox, 2006.

Parenthetical citation: (Scott).



Individual Songs:

DeMarco, Randi. "Shaboom." Shaboom, 2015. Spotify app.

Parenthetical citation: (DeMarco).


Odom, Leslie, Jr. "Wait For It." Hamilton (Original Broadway Cast Recording), written by Lin-Manuel Miranda, Atlantic, 2015. CD.

Parenthetical citation: (Odom).



Bowie, David. The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. RCA, 1972.

Online Videos

For streaming platforms like Netflix, Hulu, etc, refer to the sections on Movies and TV Shows.


“Harry Styles Carpool Karaoke.” YouTube, uploaded by The Late Late Show with James Corden, 19 May 2017,

Parenthetical citation: ("Harry Styles").

TED Talk:

Allende, Isabel. "Tales of Passion." TED, Mar. 2007,

Parenthetical citation: (Allende).

Paintings & Sculptures

Tomoo, Inagaki. Pumpkins. 1955. MOMA,

Parenthetical citation: (Tomoo).


Wyeth, Andrew. Self-Portrait. 1945. Google Arts & Culture,

Parenthetical citation: (Wyeth).


The date given is for the artwork's creation, not the date it was posted online or that you viewed it.

Hopper, Edward. Nighthawks. 1942, Art Institute of Chicago. Prebles' Artforms, by Patrick Frank, 11th ed., Pearson, 2014.

Parenthetical citation: (Hopper).
If you were discussing more than one Hopper piece: (Hopper Nighthawks). (Hopper Automat).

Wilson, Letha. Headlands Beach Steel Pipe Bend. 2018, GRIMM, New York. Vinyl print and steel sculpture.

Parenthetical citation: (Wilson).

Wyeth, Andrew. Self-Portrait. 1945, National Academy Museum & School, New York.

Parenthetical citation: (Wyeth).


The date given is for the work's creation, not the date of the exhibition or visit.


Krach, Ken. Moody at the Coast. 5 Aug. 2018. Flickr,

Parenthetical citation: (Krach).


Rothstein, Arthur. Winner of Masquerade at Halloween Party. Oct. 1939. Library of Congress,

Parenthetical citation: (Rothstein).



In the following example, the photo is part of an article/page. Sheldon wrote the article and took the photo. The photo is not officially titled on her page, but the figure it depicts is commonly called The Muleteer. This is a 3-container citation: the photo in the article on the website.

Sheldon, Natasha. Photograph of The Muleteer. "Human Remains in Pompeii: The Body Casts," by Sheldon, 23 Mar. 2014. Decoded Past,

Parenthetical citation: (Sheldon).



This example is like the previous, but with 2 different people for the photographer and writer.

Williams, John F. Photograph of a ship in a river. "Coming Soon to a Battlefield: Robots That Can Kill," by Zachary Fryer-Biggs, Sept. 2019. The Atlantic,

In a Book:

1300 Block E. Cary Street. ca. 1900. Cook Collection, Valentine Richmond History Center. Right to Ride: Streetcar Boycotts and African American Citizenship in the Era of Plessy v. Ferguson, by Blair M. Kelley, University of North Carolina Press, 2010, pp. 114-5.

Parenthetical citation: (1300 Block).


12.07.a2 Oakland, CA. Exploring Geology, by Stephen J. Reynolds et al., 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2019, p. 342.

Parenthetical citation: (12.07.a2).

In an E-Book:

"Scissors and Trident. Gallo-Roman Civilization." Bridgeman Images: DeAgostini Library, edited by Bridgeman Images, 1st ed., 2014. Credo Reference,


The date given is for the photo's creation, not the date of the exhibition or visit.

Cameron, Julia Margaret. Alfred, Lord Tennyson. 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

Parenthetical citation: (Cameron).


Fink, Joseph and Jeffrey Cranor. "Summer Reading Program." Welcome to Night Vale, narrated by Cecil Baldwin, episode 28, Night Vale Presents, 1 Aug. 2013,

Parenthetical citation: (Fink and Cranor). (Fink and Cranor 00:20:13).

Presentation, Speech, Lecture

Note: if you're watching a recording of a speech/etc, follow the examples for how you viewed it (streaming video, DVD, audio recording, etc).

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Four Freedoms speech." Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union, 6 Jan. 1941, United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.

Parenthetical citation: (Roosevelt).


Ford, Jane. Lecture. Introduction to the History of Art, 4 Apr. 2016, Bates College.

Parenthetical citation: (Ford).

TV Episodes

"Pie-lette." Pushing Daisies. Created by Brian Fuller, season 1, episode 1, The Jinks/Cohen Company / Living Dead Guy Productions, 2007.

Parenthetical citation: ("Pie-lette").

"Everything is Fine." The Good Place, season 1, episode 1, NBC, 2016. Netflix,

Parenthetical citation: ("Everything is Fine").  ("Everything is Fine" 00:07:14).


"Brain Scramblies." What We Do in the Shadows, season 2, episode 3, FXP, 22 Apr. 2020. Hulu,

Parenthetical citation: ("Brain Scramblies"). ("Brain Scramblies" 00:05:13).



This examples includes the original release year, 1999, in the supplemental element spot after the episode title. The later year, 2003, indicates the year of release for that DVD set.

Because "fourth season" is included in the container (DVD set) title, we don't need to specify the season in the number element -- just the episode number.

"Hush." 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, episode 10, Mutant Enemy / Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3. DVD.

Parenthetical citation: ("Hush"). ("Hush" 00:14:15-28).

Jeopardy! NBC, 7 Nov. 2019.

Jeopardy! Hosted by LeVar Burton, NBC, 27 July 2021.

Fleabag. Created by Phoebe Waller-Bridge, season 2, episode 3, BBC, 18 Mar. 2019.