Skip to Main Content

Citations: APA Style (7th ed.)

How to create a document and cite using the most recent edition of APA.

In-Text Citations for Audio-Visual

Your in-text citation for audiovisual materials should refer to the timestamp of where your quoted information begins and takes the place of page numbers.

For example, (Smith, 2009, 3:20).

You may also refer to a track number if citing an album, (Smith, 2009, track 11).

Movies & Videos

Note: the author is who uploaded the video, not necessarily the video's creator.

BYU Library. (2018, January 22). Le skeleton [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical citation: (BYU Library, 2018).

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical citation: (Fogarty, 2016).

Hawks, H. (Director/Producer). (1940). His girl Friday [Film]. Kanopy.

Parenthetical citation: (Hawks, 1940).

Hawks, H. (Director/Producer). (1946). The big sleep [Film]. Warner Home Video.

Parenthetical citation: (Hawks, 1946).

Lyons, B. (Producer), & Wood, M. (Writer/Director). (2004). In search of the Trojan war [Film]. Warner Home Video.

Parenthetical citation: (Lyons & Wood, 2004).

You don't need to specify how you watched a film (DVD, in theaters, etc), but you may add identifying version information inside the [Film] brackets.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. Wing Nut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Parenthetical citation: (Jackson, 2001).

Presentation, Speech, Lecture

Cite according to the format to which you're referring (i.e. for a sound recording if a recorded speech, to a print book if text of the speech is recorded in the book, etc).

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Parenthetical citation: (King, 1963).


Only include a url if that location is the only way of accessing a recording, e.g. an artist only on SoundCloud.

For in-text citations, include side and band or track numbers, e.g. (Ellington, 1926, track 2).


Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

Parenthetical citation: (Bowie, 2016). (Bowie, 2016, track 3).


Single Song or Track

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

Parenthetical citation: (Beyoncé, 2016).

Ellington, D. (2001). Mood indigo [Song recorded by Duke Ellington and the Cotton Club Orchestra]. On Duke Ellington: Masterpieces 1926-1949. Proper Records. (Original work published 1926)

Parenthetical citation: (Ellington, 2001).

TED Talks

The exact formatting of a citation for TED Talk varies slightly depending on where you viewed it:

From the TED Website:

Palmer, A. (2013, February). The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences.

In-text citation: (Palmer, 2013, 2:45); Palmer (2013) states .... (2:45).


From YouTube:

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. YouTube.

In-text citation: (TED, 2013, 2:45)


TV Episodes:

Lawrence, S. (Writer), & Ellis, S. (Director). (2018). Mrs. X at the Gaslight (Season 2, Episode 6) [TV series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino & D. Palladino (Executive Producers), The marvelous Mrs. Maisel. Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow; Amazon Studios.

Parenthetical citation: (Lawrence & Ellis, 2018). (Lawrence & Ellis, 2018, 4:29).


Serling, R. (Writer), & Winston, R. (Director). (1960, March 4). The monsters are due on Maple Street (Season 1, Episode 22) [TV series episode]. In R. Serling (Executive Producer), The twilight zone. Cayuga Productions; CBS Productions.

Parenthetical citation: (Serling & Winston, 1960). (Serling & Winston, 1960, 15:35).


TV Series:

Davies, R. T. (Executive Producer). (2005-2007). Doctor who [Television series]. BBC Broadcasting.

Parenthetical citation: (Davis, 2005-2007).


Note: It's not necessary to include the [Audiobook] tag unless the content is different, or if you want to note something special about e.g. the impact of the narration or if you quote from the audiobook (APA, 2019, p. 322). However, when in doubt, include a description (p. 292).

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio.

In-text citation: (Cain, 2012, 1:20:39)

Images Online

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Parenthetical citation: (McCurry, 1985).

Sōtatsu, T. (1628). Waves at Matsushima [Painting]. The Smithsonian: Freer and Sackler Galleries, Washington, D.C., United States.

Parenthetical citation: (Sōtatsu, 1628).



Vedentam, S. (Host). (2019, October 21). What monkeys can teach us about being human [Audio podcast episode]. In Hidden brain. NPR.

Parenthetical citation: (Vedentam, 2019). (Vedentam, 2019, 13:19-27).

Weiser, J. (Host). (2019). Rip Van Winkle: Bad dad (No. 159) [Audio podcast episode]. In Myths & legends.

Parenthetical citation: (Weiser, 2019). (Weiser, 2019, 5:31-45).


Vedentam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast episode]. NPR.

Weiser, J. (Host). (2015-present). Myths & legends [Audio podcast].