Skip to Main Content

Citations: APA Style (7th ed.)

How to create a document and cite using the most recent edition of APA.

Universal Rules

  • Last Name comma First Name for all authors.
  • Only give initials for authors' first and middle names! e.g. Smith, J.
  • Use an & (ampersand) before the last author listed, rather than write out 'and.'
Article & Book Titles
  • Sentence capitalization: mostly lower-case except for the first word and proper nouns
  • Italicize book titles (and movie and painting titles).
  • Do not put quote marks on articles.
Publication Info
  • Italicize the name of print publications, whether you're looking at the paper or digital copy -- e.g. The New York Times.
  • Websites that don't have a print aspect at all will be plain (non-italics text).
Volume, Issue, Page Numbers
  • Don't label volume or issue or the range of pages: just the numbers, e.g. ...10(3), 6-19,...
  • Italicize the volume number.
  • DOI (digital object identifier) is preferred over url (links).
  • Don't put a period after this