This guide is intended to cover only the Notes and Bibliography system.
For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided. The following format will be used:
Full Note - use the first time that you cite a source.
Concise Note - use after the first time you cite a source.
Bibliography - use when you are compiling the Bibliography that appears at the end of your paper.
Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).
Include as many of the following elements as possible when citing websites: title or page description; page owner/sponsor/author; title or description of site as a whole; site owner/sponsor; date of publication or revision; and a URL.
Titled sections or pages of websites will go inside quotation marks.
Website names are written normally -- no italics or quotation marks and capitalized headline style (all major words capitalized). Blogs, on the other hand, are treated like periodicals, and the titles of those will be in italics.
Websites can often be limited to notes. If not using notes, a bibliographic entry may be included, cited by the owner or sponsor of the site.
1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, "Title of Page," Title or Owner of Site, date last modified or accessed, URL.
2. Author Surname, "Title of Page."
Author Surname, First Name or Initials. "Title of Page." Title or Owner of Site. Date last modified or accessed. URL.
1. K. A. Johnson and J. A. Becker, "The Whole Brain Atlas," Harvard University Medical School, accessed April 29, 2011, http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/.
2. Johnson and Becker, "The Whole Brain Atlas."
Johnson, K. A., and J. A. Becker. "The Whole Brain Atlas." Harvard University Medical School. Accessed April 29, 2011. http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/.
1. Alan Henry, "Why We Get Brain Freezes," Lifehacker, June 11, 2016, http://lifehacker.com/why-we-get-brain-freezes-1781798710.
2. Henry, "Brain Freezes."
Henry, Alan. "Why We Get Brain Freezes." Lifehacker. June 11, 2016. http://lifehacker.com/why-we-get-brain-freezes-1781798710.
1. "Apps for Office Sample Pack," Office Dev Center, Microsoft Coporation, updated October 20, 2015, https://code.msdn.microsoft.com/office/Apps-for-Office-code-d04762b7.
2. "Apps for Office."
Microsoft Corporation. "Apps for Office Sample Pack." Office Dev Center. Updated October 20, 2015. https://code.msdn.microsoft.com/office/Apps-for-Office-code-d04762b7.
1. "Diabetes Myths," American Diabetes Association, last modified July 5, 2017, http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/myths.
2. "Diabetes Myths."
American Diabetes Association. "Diabetes Myths." Last modified July 5, 2017. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/myths.
Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. List this citation by the blog's title or, if available, the editor's name. [14.208]
Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.
1. Author-Firstname Surname, "Title of Entry," Name of Blog (blog), Name of Larger Publication/Site, date last modified, URL.
2. Author Surname, "Name of Entry."
Surname, Firstname, ed. Title of Blog (blog). Name of Larger Publication/Site. URL.
1. Mike Nizza, "Go Ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says," The Lede (blog), New York Times, July 15, 2008, http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/.
2. Nizza, "Go Ahead, Annoy Away."
The Lede (blog). New York Times. http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/.
1. Justin Rowlatt, "Are We Doomed by Democracy?," Ethical Man (blog), BBC, August 17, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ethicalman.
2. Rowlatt, “Are We Doomed.”
Rowlatt, Justin, ed. Ethical Man (blog). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ethicalman.
1. William, Germano, "Futurust Shock," Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017, http://www.chornicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.
2. Germano, "Futurist Shock."
Germano, William. "Futurust Shock." Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017. http://www.chornicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.
Omit the URL for art you've viewed in person.
1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Image Title, Year, medium, dimensions, physical location, URL.
2. Author Surname, Image Title.
Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Image Title. Year. Medium, dimensions. Location. URL.
1. Jan Griffier, Dutch Snow Scene with Skaters, c.1695, oil on canvas, 83 x 94 cm, Merchant Adventurers' Hall, York, https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/dutch-snow-scene-with-skaters-10363.
2. Griffier, Dutch Snow Scene.
Note: Chicago does not require that you include art in your bibliography, though your professor might!
Griffier, Jan. Dutch Snow Scene with Skaters. c.1695. Oil on canvas, 83 x 94 cm. Merchant Adventurers' Hall. https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/dutch-snow-scene-with-skaters-10363.
1. Pablo Picasso, Bull's Head, spring 1942, bicycle saddle and handlebars, 33.5 x 43.5 x 19 cm, Musée Picasso Paris.
2. Picasso, Bull's Head.
Picasso, Pablo. Bull's Head. Spring 1942. Bicycle saddle and handlebars, 33.5 x 43.5 x 19 cm. Musée Picasso Paris.
1. Dorothea Lange, Black Maria, Oakland, 1957, printed 1965, gelatin silver print, 39.3 x 37 cm, Art Institute, Chicago, http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/220174.
2. Lange, Black Maria, Oakland.
Lange, Dorothea. Black Maria, Oakland. 1957, printed 1965. Gelatin silver print, 39.3 x 37 cm. Art Institute, Chicago. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/220174.
1. Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl, December 1984, photograph, National Geographic, cover, June 1985.
2. McCurry, Afghan Girl.
McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December 1984. Photograph. National Geographic, cover, June 1985.
1. Lone Star College-University Park Student Learning Resource Center, Collage of library photos profile image, n.d., color image, Citations: Chicago Style, http://upresearch.lonestar.edu/chicago.
2. Lone Star Collage, Collage.
Lone Star College-University Park Student Learning Resource Center. Collage of library photos profile image. N.d., color image. Citations: Chicago Style. http://upresearch.lonestar.edu/chicago.
Include the author's real name, if known, as well as their screen name. For non-text posts, you'll include a description of the content, e.g. "Instagram photo" instead of simply "Twitter."
Due to the ephemeral nature of social media (quickly and easily edited or deleted), researchers are encouraged to keep a copy of anything they cite.
1. Author Real-First Name Surname (screen name), "Text of the post up to 160 characters, unless already quoted in-text," Service with description, date published, URL.
2. Author Surname, "Text of the post."
Author. "Text of the post up to 160 characters." Service with description, date published. URL.
1. Chicago Manual of Style, "Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993," Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
2. Chicago Manual of Style, "Is the world ready."
Chicago Manual of Style. "Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993." Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
1. Junot Diaz, "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume," Facebook, February 24, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.
2. Diaz, "Always surprises."
Diaz, Junot. "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume." Facebook, February 24, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.
1. Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.
2. O'Brien, "In honor of."
O'Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets." Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.. https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.
1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), "President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit," Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
2. Souza, "President Obama."
Souza, Pete (@petesouza). "President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit." Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
1. First Name1 Last Name1 to First Name2 Last Name2, City of Origin, ST, Month DD, YYYY. Website/Collection Name, url.
2. Last Name1 to First Name2 Last Name2, Month DD, YYYY.
Last Name1, First Name1 to First Name2 Last Name 2. Month DD, YYYY. Website/Collection Name. url.
1. Joseph Christy to Mary Jane Demus, Georgetown, SC, April 27, 1865. Valley of the Shadow, http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/F3023.
2. Christy to Mary Jane Demus, April 27, 1865.
Christy, Joseph L. Joseph Christy to Mary Jane Demus. April 27, 1865. Valley of the Shadow. http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/F3023.
1. Sender First Name Surname to Recipient First Name Surname, memorandum, "Subject of Memo," date, Collection Information, url.
2. Sender to Recipient, date.
Sender Surname, First Name. Sender First Name Surname to Recipient First Name Surname, memorandum, "Subject of Memo," date. Collection Information. url.
1. William L. Stearman to Henry Kissinger, memorandum, "Current Military Situation in Vietnam," Aug. 9, 1974, Presidential Country Files: East Asia and the Pacific, Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum, https://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/exhibits/vietnam/032400069-001.pdf.
2. Stearman to Kissinger, Aug. 9, 1974.
Stearman, William L. William L. Stearman to Henry Kissinger, memorandum, "Current Military Situation in Vietnam," Aug. 9, 1974. Presidential Country Files: East Asia and the Pacific. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. https://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/exhibits/vietnam/032400069-001.pdf.
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