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Citations: Chicago Style

Guide to formatting and citing using the notes-bibliography format for Chicago Style, 16th. ed.

About Chicago Style: Fast Facts


The next edition of the Chicago Manual of Style will be released in the Fall of 2017!
We'll keep you posted about what this means for formatting citations.


The Chicago Manual of Style offers two distinct documentation methods, one for the humanities (Notes and Bibliography system) and one for the sciences (Author-Date system). This guide presumes you're using the Notes & Bibliography format, as is common for Lone Star College classes.

  • There is no particular required font, but stick with Times New Roman size 12, as you would for other essays.
  • Footnote numbers are consecutive throughout the whole paper. If you re-use a source, it will get a new footnote number each time. 
  • Most of your paper will be double-spaced.
  • Footnote entries & bibliography entries will be single-spaced. Footnotes will also use a "first line indent," making them look like a regular paragraph. Bibliography entries at the end of the paper will use a hanging indent like you've probably used in MLA and APA.

Basic Citation Anatomy:

In-Text (Footnote):
The first time you use a source, you'll use the full version of the Note citation:

      1. Barbara Erhlich White, "Renoir's Trip to Italy," Art Bulletin 51, no. 4 (1969): 333-51,

If you use the same source again consecutively, you can use ibid. with the relevant page number.

      2. ibid.: 341.

This a full Note citation for a book with no author:

      3. The House Book. (London: Phaidon, 2001), 45.

Back to the White article again, this time using a shortened/concise note. We can't "ibid." because the book interrupted our list of footnotes, but we don't have to do the full thing again. Also note that the footnote number does not refer back to 1 or 2 but keeps going in sequence.

      4. White, "Renoir's Trip," 344.


The House Book. London: Phaidon, 2001.

White, Barbara Ehrlich. "Renoir's Trip to Italy." Art Bulletin 51, no. 4 (1969): 333-51.


Shortened (Concise) Notes

The second (or subsequent) time a resource is referenced, use a shortened form of the citation.  The short form should include the last name of the author, a brief form of the title (three to four words), and the page number.  For example:

      95. Miller, Quest, 81.

If the resource is cited a second time immediately following a citation (full or shortened) then use ibid.  If the page number referenced is the same, no page number is needed.  If a different page number is referenced, ibid. should be followed by the page number.  For example:

     5. Farmwinkle, Humor of the Midwest, 241.

     6. Ibid., 258-59.

     7. Ibid.

     8. Ibid., 333-34.