|An exception to copyright allowing non-copyright owners to make "transformative" use of copyrighted material. Acceptable fair use is determined by weighing four factors: purpose, nature of the work, amount and substantiality, and effect on the market.1, 2|
Copyright material resulting from "two or more authors with the intention that their contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole."3 For example, one person handling the lyrics and the other composing the melody create a song which is a joint work.
Each author "hold[s] an undivided share in the copyright" and can license or use the entire work, but must account for profits to the co-author(s). One author alone may not transfer the copyright without permission from the other authors, however.1
|Royalty||Compensation established by contract or other agreement based on a percentage of sales or revenue. Royalties may be compulsory requirement in exchange for using copyright content.4|
Work (Made) for Hire
"A work prepared by an employee within the scope of their employment, and a work by an independent contractor specially commissioned for an employer."1
The employer (whether a "firm, organization, or individual") "is considered the owner the author and the copyright owner."1
In the case of specially commissioned works, there are a lot of legal ramifications and criteria for this to apply, including that both parties must agree to and sign a written agreement that the work shall be considered a WMFH.
1 Crews, K. (2012). Copyright law for librarians and educators: Creative strategies & practical solutions (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
2 Stim, R. (n.d.). What is fair use? Copyright & Fair Use, Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved from https://fairuse.stanford.edu/overview/fair-use/what-is-fair-use/
3 Legal Information Institute (n.d.). Joint work. Wex, Cornell Law School. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/joint_work
4 Legal Information Institute (n.d.). Royalty. Wex, Cornell Law School. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/royalty
Copyright is automatically applied to "original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression" (Section 102(a)). However, you may still want to formally register a copyright, especially if you want to be able "to bring a lawsuit for infringement."
Fixed in a Tangible Medium: