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An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief description of the source in which you basically justify why that source is one of your sources.
You will summarize the relevant information you're getting from that source (but remember, this isn't your paper -- you are summarizing, not presenting all the information itself) as well as how this well help you in your research (by providing background information, by exploring a certain angle, by presenting a contrary idea...).
Creating an annotated bibliography is not simply an academic exercise. An annotated bibliography is a tool to help you summarize your source content and evaluate its place within your research. If a source satisfies your "usefulness" criteria, that source belongs on your annotated bibliography. This process begins the transition from reading sources to incorporating content (ideas, quotes, paraphrasing) into your work. It is time to "make sense" of the knowledge you have gained from your research. This knowledge is the foundation on which to build your own voice, explain your methodology, discuss your conclusions, make and report on your new knowledge.
Of course, evaluation of sources goes beyond "usefulness" to the other elements of authority, credibility, currency, and purpose.
Consulted Saylor Academy's open access course on research concepts and the writing process: Research Writing in The Academic Disciplines. Annotated bibliographies have additional purposes that depend on the intent of the writer/researcher and the specific discipline.
Annotation is a brief and concise statement about the source. Think in terms of a "note" consisting of 5-6 sentences.
One sentence to evaluate why the author is an expert on the topic(authority).
A sentence on the intended audience of the source (purpose).
A few sentences (perhaps a paraphrase) that explain how this source will illuminate your topic and how you will use the content in your paper (usefulness or relevance).
Any other criteria of note for this topic or discipline?
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In-Text & Reference Citations
APA in Presentations
There's nothing particularly special about an APA presentation: unlike essays, there's no special way to structure your PowerPoint. The main thing is to follow APA format for your citations.
You need a References slide at the end of your presentation (or multiple slides, if you have many sources).
Individual slides all need APA style in-text citations where appropriate (i.e. anywhere you've used information not original to you).
Best practices for PowerPoint and other presentations still apply: this is not a paper pasted into a slideshow. You should still make use of short, concise bullet points and images or other graphics to develop an engaging presentation.
The moon is made of green cheese (Carter, 2013, p. 47). The moon is made of green cheese (Carter & Sousa, 2011, p. 47).
Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" (Sousa & Thompson, 1974, p. 43).
Need to Know:
Author last name(s) with year of publication and page number
Join the names with "&"
Others argue that the moon is actually made up of various rocks (Stark et al., 1947). Everyone is disappointed by this development (Stark et al., 2009, p. 198).
Need to Know:
For a work with three (3) or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.
Page number (if available)
If use a direct quote, the page number is required
If a source is not paginated, use a method most helpful to readers, such as paragraph number or section/heading name to locate quotation.
Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" ("Moon Analysis," 2013).
Need to Know:
First word or two of the article title
"Quotes" if it's an article, Italics if it's a book
Enough of the title to be unique, but not the entire title
Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" (Sousa and Thompson, 1953, p. 43).
Sousa supports this theory but adds that "the core could be made of white cheddar" as well ("Deeper," 1990, p. 374).
Need to Know:
A page number is required for direct quotes. If a source is not paginated, use a method most helpful to readers, such as paragraph number or section/heading name to locate quotation.
Direct quotes always need to be framed by your own words before and/or after.
Don't change anything inside quotes!
If you do change something (for clarity or to fit your own sentence), place the changed word(s) in square brackets. E.g. Sousa adds that "the core could be [cheese]" as well.
Keep just what you need -- you have no obligation to keep the author's whole sentence if you don't need it.
Lunar geologist Dr. Carter (1993) reports that the moon is made of cheese (p. 47). Carter's colleague Dr. Slate has further evidence that it is made of brie and stilton in particular (Moon and Crackers, 1974, p. 178, 234).
Need to Know:
Not just rewording -- synthesize the info a bit to make it your own while still giving credit to the originator.
APA Template: Professional Manuscript
This Word document is pre-formatted with placeholders for your information. Everything is defaulted to meet APA 7th ed. requirements for the professional manuscript -- just add content!