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Psychology Assignments (Bradley): Citations & Format

Spring 2020 | PSYC 2301 | Professor Bradley

Online Journal Article with DOI

Guthrie, J., & Kunkel, A. (2013). Tell me sweet (and not-so-sweet) little lies: Deception in romantic relationships. Communication Studies, 64(2), 141-157. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2012.755637

Reed, M. J., Kennett, D. J., Lewis, T., Lund-Lucas, E., Stallberg, C., & Newbold, I. L. (2009). The relative effects of university success courses and individualized interventions for students with learning disabilities. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(4), 385–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360903067013

In-text citation: (Guthrie & Kunkel, 2013, p. 143); (Reed et al., 2009, p. 390)

Diagnostic Manual (e.g. DSM-5)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

In-text citation with abbreviation defined: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
Subsequent parenthetical citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Books: From Library Database or Print without DOI

For print books without a DOI number as well as e-books from the library databases, follow this format.

Lawrence, R. A. (2007). School crime and juvenile justice (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Schlosser, E. (2001). Fast food nation: The dark side of the all-American meal. Houghton Mifflin.

Williams-Forson, P. A. (2006). Building houses out of chicken legs: Black women, food, and power. University of North Carolina Press.

Quick Reference: In-Text Citations (Slide)

The moon is made of green cheese (Carter, 2013, p. 47). The moon is made of green cheese (Carter & Sousa, 2011, p. 47).

Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" (Sousa & Thompson, 1974, p. 43).

Need to Know:

  • Author last name(s) with year of publication and page number
  • Join the names with "&"

Others argue that the moon is actually made up of various rocks (Stark et al., 1947).  Everyone is disappointed by this development (Stark et al., 2009, p. 198).

Need to Know:

  • For a work with three (3) or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.
  • Page number (if available)
  • If use a direct quote,  the page number is required
  • If a source is not paginated, use a method most helpful to readers, such as paragraph number or section/heading name to locate quotation.

Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" ("Moon Analysis," 2013).

Need to Know:

  • First word or two of the article title
  • "Quotes" if it's an article, Italics if it's a book
  • Enough of the title to be unique, but not the entire title

Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" (Sousa and Thompson, 1953, p. 43).

Sousa supports this theory but adds that "the core could be made of white cheddar" as well ("Deeper," 1990, p. 374).

Need to Know:

  • A page number is required for direct quotes. If a source is not paginated, use a method most helpful to readers, such as paragraph number or section/heading name to locate quotation.
  • Direct quotes always need to be framed by your own words before and/or after.
  • Don't change anything inside quotes!
    • If you do change something (for clarity or to fit your own sentence), place the changed word(s) in square brackets. E.g. Sousa adds that "the core could be [cheese]" as well.
  • Keep just what you need -- you have no obligation to keep the author's whole sentence if you don't need it.

Lunar geologist Dr. Carter (1993) reports that the moon is made of cheese (p. 47). Carter's colleague Dr. Slate has further evidence that it is made of brie and stilton in particular (Moon and Crackers, 1974, p. 178, 234).

Need to Know:

  • Not just rewording -- synthesize the info a bit to make it your own while still giving credit to the originator.

APA Resources

APA Online Guide

Additional help online:

APA: More Information

APA Citation on Slides