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Assignment | Footprint Project (Benford): Citations

GEOL 1405 | Prof. Bryn Benford (Fall 2021)

Library Handouts

In-Text Quick Reference

The moon is made of green cheese (Carter, 2013, p. 47). The moon is made of green cheese (Carter & Sousa, 2011, p. 47).

Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" (Sousa & Thompson, 1974, p. 43).

Need to Know:

  • Author last name(s) with year of publication and page number
  • Join the names with "&"

Others argue that the moon is actually made up of various rocks (Stark et al., 1947). Further research reveals that these rocks are inedible (Carter et al., 2009, p. 198).

Need to Know:

  • For a work with three (3) or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.
  • Page number (if available)


Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" ("Moon Analysis," 2013).

Need to Know:

  • First word or two of the article title
  • "Quotes" if it's an article, Italics if it's a book
  • Enough of the title to be unique, but not the entire title

Experts agree that "the moon is comprised of green cheese" (Sousa and Thompson, 1953, p. 43).

Sousa supports this theory but adds that "the core could be made of white cheddar" as well ("Deeper," 1990, p. 374).

Need to Know:

  • A page number is required for direct quotes. If the source does not have page numbers, use a method most helpful to readers, such as paragraph number or section/heading name to locate quotation.
  • Direct quotes always need to be framed by your own words before and/or after.
  • Don't change anything inside quotes!
    • If you do change something (for clarity or to fit your own sentence), place the changed word(s) in square brackets. E.g. Sousa adds that "the core could be [cheese]" as well.
  • Keep just what you need -- you have no obligation to keep the author's whole sentence if you don't need it.

Lunar geologist Dr. Carter (1993) reports that the moon is made of cheese (p. 47). Carter's colleague Dr. Slate has further evidence that it is made of brie and stilton in particular (Moon and Crackers, 1974, p. 178, 234).

Need to Know:

  • Not just rewording -- synthesize the info a bit to make it your own while still giving credit to the originator.

Additional Help

The Manual

Library APA handouts are condensed versions of The Publication Manual. If you want to know more, check with the library front desk for a reserve copy of the entire manual.

Additional links to more information on APA are available below.

Rules of APA In-Text Citations

The purpose of the text citation is to briefly give readers the identity of the information you are citing, and allow them to find the information you provide in the reference list.

Rule #1

For each text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list and for each reference list citation there must be a corresponding text citation.

Rule #2 

Each in-text citation will, at a minimum, refer to an author's name or authors' names and the year of publication. If the original source is paginated, you'll also include the page number specific information was pulled from. If there isn't an author, your in-text citation will refer to the first couple words of the article title.